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The Apache and Navajo tribal groups of the North American Southwest speak related languages of the Athabaskan language family.
The Apaches' nomadic way of life complicates accurate dating, primarily because they constructed less substantial dwellings than other Southwestern groups.
The Athabaskan-speaking group probably moved into areas that were concurrently occupied or recently abandoned by other cultures.
Other Athabaskan speakers, perhaps including the Southern Athabaskan, adapted many of their neighbors' technology and practices in their own cultures.
Thus sites where early Southern Athabaskans may have lived are difficult to locate and even more difficult to firmly identify as culturally Southern Athabaskan.
Recent advances have been made in the regard in the far southern portion of the American Southwest. There are several hypotheses concerning Apache migrations.
One [ who? In the midth century, these mobile groups lived in tents, hunted bison and other game, and used dogs to pull travois loaded with their possessions.
Substantial numbers of the people and a wide range were recorded by the Spanish in the 16th century. In April , while traveling on the plains east of the Pueblo region, Francisco Coronado referred to the people as "dog nomads.
After seventeen days of travel, I came upon a 'rancheria' of the Indians who follow these cattle bison. These natives are called Querechos.
They do not cultivate the land, but eat raw meat and drink the blood of the cattle they kill. They dress in the skins of the cattle, with which all the people in this land clothe themselves, and they have very well-constructed tents, made with tanned and greased cowhides, in which they live and which they take along as they follow the cattle.
They have dogs which they load to carry their tents, poles, and belongings. The Spanish described Plains dogs as very white, with black spots, and "not much larger than water spaniels.
Although the first documentary sources mention the Apache, and historians have suggested some passages indicate a 16th-century entry from the north, archaeological data indicate they were present on the plains long before this first reported contact.
A competing theory [ who? An archaeological material culture assemblage identified in this mountainous zone as ancestral Apache has been referred to as the "Cerro Rojo complex".
When the Spanish arrived in the area, trade between the long established Pueblo peoples and the Southern Athabaskan was well established. They reported the Pueblo exchanged maize and woven cotton goods for bison meat, and hides and materials for stone tools.
Coronado observed the Plains people wintering near the Pueblo in established camps. Later Spanish sovereignty over the area disrupted trade between the Pueblo and the diverging Apache and Navajo groups.
The Apache quickly acquired horses, improving their mobility for quick raids on settlements. In addition, the Pueblo were forced to work Spanish mission lands and care for mission flocks; they had fewer surplus goods to trade with their neighbors.
In , Coronado reported that the modern Western Apache area was uninhabited, although some scholars have argued that he simply did not see the American Indians.
Other Spanish explorers first mention "Querechos" living west of the Rio Grande in the s. To some historians, this implies the Apaches moved into their current Southwestern homelands in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
Other historians note that Coronado reported that Pueblo women and children had often been evacuated by the time his party attacked their dwellings, and that he saw some dwellings had been recently abandoned as he moved up the Rio Grande.
This might indicate the semi-nomadic Southern Athabaskan had advance warning about his hostile approach and evaded encounter with the Spanish.
Archaeologists are finding ample evidence of an early proto-Apache presence in the Southwestern mountain zone in the 15th century and perhaps earlier.
The Apache presence on both the Plains and in the mountainous Southwest indicate that the people took multiple early migration routes. In general, the recently arrived Spanish colonists, who settled in villages, and Apache bands developed a pattern of interaction over a few centuries.
Both raided and traded with each other. Records of the period seem to indicate that relationships depended upon the specific villages and specific bands that were involved with each other.
For example, one band might be friends with one village and raid another. When war happened, the Spanish would send troops; after a battle both sides would "sign a treaty," and both sides would go home.
The traditional and sometimes treacherous relationships continued between the villages and bands with the independence of Mexico in By Mexico had placed a bounty on Apache scalps see scalping , but certain villages were still trading with some bands.
By , authorities in horse-rich Durango would claim that Indian raids mostly Comanche and Apache in their state had taken nearly 6, lives, abducted people, and forced the abandonment of settlements over the previous 20 years.
When the United States went to war against Mexico in , many Apache bands promised U. When the U. An uneasy peace between the Apache and the new citizens of the United States held until the s.
An influx of gold miners into the Santa Rita Mountains led to conflict with the Apache. This period is sometimes called the Apache Wars.
United States' concept of a reservation had not been used by the Spanish, Mexicans or other Apache neighbors before.
Reservations were often badly managed, and bands that had no kinship relationships were forced to live together.
No fences existed to keep people in or out. It was not uncommon for a band to be given permission to leave for a short period of time.
Other times a band would leave without permission, to raid, return to their homeland to forage, or to simply get away. The military usually had forts nearby.
Their job was keeping the various bands on the reservations by finding and returning those who left. The reservation policies of the United States produced conflict and war with the various Apache bands who left the reservations for almost another quarter century.
Warfare between the Apache peoples and Euro-Americans has led to a stereotypical focus on certain aspects of Apache cultures. These have often been distorted through misunderstanding of their cultures, as noted by anthropologist Keith Basso :.
Of the hundreds of peoples that lived and flourished in native North America, few have been so consistently misrepresented as the Apacheans of Arizona and New Mexico.
Glorified by novelists, sensationalized by historians, and distorted beyond credulity by commercial film makers, the popular image of 'the Apache' — a brutish, terrifying semi-human bent upon wanton death and destruction — is almost entirely a product of irresponsible caricature and exaggeration.
Indeed, there can be little doubt that the Apache has been transformed from a native American into an American legend, the fanciful and fallacious creation of a non-Indian citizenry whose inability to recognize the massive treachery of ethnic and cultural stereotypes has been matched only by its willingness to sustain and inflate them.
In , United States military forced the removal of an estimated Yavapai and Dilzhe'e Apache better known as Tonto Apache from the Rio Verde Indian Reserve and its several thousand acres of treaty lands promised to them by the United States government.
At the orders of Indian Commissioner L. Dudley, U. The trek resulted in the loss of several hundred lives.
The people were held there in internment for 25 years while white settlers took over their land. Only a few hundred ever returned to their lands.
At the San Carlos reservation, the Buffalo soldiers of the 9th Cavalry Regiment —replacing the 8th Cavalry who were being stationed to Texas—guarded the Apaches from to Beginning in , an Apache uprising against the reservation system led to Victorio's War between Chief Victorio's band of Apaches and the 9th Cavalry.
Most United States' histories of this era report that the final defeat of an Apache band took place when 5, US troops forced Geronimo 's group of 30 to 50 men, women and children to surrender on September 4, , at Skeleton Canyon , Arizona.
Sill , Oklahoma. Many books were written on the stories of hunting and trapping during the late 19th century. Many of these stories involve Apache raids and the failure of agreements with Americans and Mexicans.
In the post-war era, the US government arranged for Apache children to be taken from their families for adoption by white Americans in assimilation programs.
All Apache peoples lived in extended family units or family clusters ; they usually lived close together, with each nuclear family in separate dwellings.
An extended family generally consisted of a husband and wife, their unmarried children, their married daughters, their married daughters' husbands, and their married daughters' children.
Thus, the extended family is connected through a lineage of women who live together that is, matrilocal residence , into which men may enter upon marriage leaving behind his parents' family.
When a daughter was married, a new dwelling was built nearby for her and her husband. Among the Navajo, residence rights are ultimately derived from a head mother.
Although the Western Apache usually practiced matrilocal residence, sometimes the eldest son chose to bring his wife to live with his parents after marriage.
All tribes practiced sororate and levirate marriages. Apache men practiced varying degrees of "avoidance" of his wife's close relatives, a practice often most strictly observed by distance between mother-in-law and son-in-law.
The degree of avoidance differed in different Apache groups. The most elaborate system was among the Chiricahua, where men had to use indirect polite speech toward and were not allowed to be within visual sight of the wife's female relatives, whom he had to avoid.
His female Chiricahua relatives through marriage also avoided him. Several extended families worked together as a "local group", which carried out certain ceremonies, and economic and military activities.
Political control was mostly present at the local group level. Local groups were headed by a chief , a male who had considerable influence over others in the group due to his effectiveness and reputation.
The chief was the closest societal role to a leader in Apache cultures. The office was not hereditary , and the position was often filled by members of different extended families.
The chief's leadership was only as strong as he was evaluated to be—no group member was ever obliged to follow the chief. The Western Apache criteria for evaluating a good chief included: industriousness, generosity, impartiality, forbearance, conscientiousness, and eloquence in language.
Many Apache peoples joined together several local groups into " bands ". Band organization was strongest among the Chiricahua and Western Apache, while among the Lipan and Mescalero, it was weak.
The Navajo did not organize local groups into bands, perhaps because of the requirements of the sheepherding economy. However, the Navajo did have "the outfit", a group of relatives that was larger than the extended family, but not as large as a local group community or a band.
On the larger level, the Western Apache organized bands into what Grenville Goodwin called "groups". He reported five groups for the Western Apache: Northern Tonto, Southern Tonto, Cibecue, San Carlos, and White Mountain.
The Jicarilla grouped their bands into " moieties ", perhaps influenced by the example of the northeastern Pueblo.
The Western Apache and Navajo also had a system of matrilineal " clans " that were organized further into phratries perhaps influenced by the western Pueblo.
The notion of " tribe " in Apache cultures is very weakly developed; essentially it was only a recognition "that one owed a modicum of hospitality to those of the same speech, dress, and customs.
For example, the Lipan once fought against the Mescalero. The Apache tribes have two distinctly different kinship term systems: a Chiricahua type and a Jicarilla type.
The Western Apache system differs slightly from the other two systems, and it has some similarities to the Navajo system. The Jicarilla type, which is similar to the Dakota — Iroquois kinship systems , is used by the Jicarilla, Navajo, Lipan, and Plains Apache.
The Navajo system is more divergent among the four, having similarities with the Chiricahua-type system.
The Lipan and Plains Apache systems are very similar. Furthermore, the grandparent terms are reciprocal, that is, a grandparent will use the same term to refer to their grandchild in that relationship.
Chiricahua cousins are not distinguished from siblings through kinship terms. Thus, the same word will refer to either a sibling or a cousin there are not separate terms for parallel-cousin and cross-cousin.
They do not have separate terms for maternal or paternal grandparents. The terms are also used of a grandparent's siblings according to sex.
These terms are not reciprocal. Die ethnische Religion der Apachen basiert auf einer komplexen Mythologie , in der zahlreiche Geistwesen vorkommen.
Solche Geister — die auch in Felsen, Bäumen oder dem Wind gesehen werden — gelten als die Seelen der Ahnen, so dass sie — respektive ihre Erscheinungen — mit Respekt behandelt werden müssen  siehe auch: Heiliger Mount Graham.
Letztere werden bei verschiedenen Maskentänzen von den Tänzern repräsentiert, etwa bei der viertägigen Pubertätszeremonie für Mädchen, als Regentanz oder für Heilrituale.
Wasser gilt als starke spirituelle Kraft, mit der man etwa Dämonen abwaschen kann. Aus religiöser Sicht gelten junge Frauen als besonders machtvoll.
Gesang, Trommeln und Tanz sind die wichtigsten Möglichkeiten, um mit dem Transzendenten zu kommunizieren.
Die traditionellen Apachen sehen sich, die Natur und die spirituellen Mächte als Geschöpfe des Hochgottes Ussen. In der Regel dienen diese Praktiken dazu, eine gestörte Balance der Kräfte wiederherzustellen, Kranke zu heilen und böse Hexen zu bekämpfen.
Die Christianisierung der Apachen wie auch der Navaho erfolgte früher aufgrund der nomadisierenden Lebensweise nur sehr geringfügig und setzte daher erst sehr spät ein.
Viele traditionelle Apachen führen auch heute noch die überlieferten Rituale durch. Die San Carlos Apache und Südlichen Tonto Apache zählten jeweils Stammesmitglieder mit je Kriegern , so dass die Nördlichen Tonto Apache mit etwa Mitgliedern und etwa Kriegern die kleinste Gruppe bildeten.
Zusammen konnten somit die Westlichen Apache rund Krieger stellen. In den er-Jahren zählten die Chiricahua Apache rund Stammesmitglieder und konnten etwa Krieger aufbringen.
Als Ergebnis der ständigen Kämpfe mit Mexikanern und Amerikanern sowie benachbarten Stämmen nahm die Zahl der Chiricahua langsam ab, sodass in den er Jahren diese etwa Krieger stellen konnten, aufgeteilt auf die vier unabhängig agierenden bands : Chihenne etwa Krieger , Chokonen etwa Krieger , Südliche Chiricahua etwa Krieger sowie die Bedonkohe als kleinste Gruppe etwa Krieger.
Anfang des Jahrhunderts gab es nur noch rund Jicarilla Apache mit etwa Kriegern. Um schätzte man die Jicarilla, die zudem durch die ständigen Kriege aufgerieben waren, nur noch auf bis Stammesmitglieder sowie etwa bis Krieger.
Um schätzte man, dass es rund Lipan Apache gab, die etwa Krieger stellen konnten. Nach harten Kämpfen gegen Spanier und Comanche glaubte man um hingegen, dass es nur noch bis Lipan Apache gab, mit bis Kriegern.
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Top 10 Liste: Die 25 besten Horrorfilme Machete 2010 Zeiten ab 18 und 16 Appachen. - InhaltsverzeichnisBära-Apotheke betreibt in Nusplingen ein Corona-Schnelltestzentrum. Directed by Gottfried Kolditz. With Gojko Mitic, Milan Beli, Colea Rautu, Leon Niemczyk. Directed by Gottfried Kolditz, this action-packed Eurowestern is based loosely on the legend of heroic Apache warrior Ulzana. How unique is the name Appachen? Out of 6,, records in the U.S. Social Security Administration public data, the first name Appachen was not present. It is possible the name you are searching has less than five occurrences per year. Weird things about the name Appachen: The name spelled backwards is Nehcappa. The tune that started my interest in all things guitar! I have not played this classic Shadows tune for over 50 years, but was inspired to do so again, by Jo. The Apache (/ ə ˈ p æ tʃ i /) are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Mimbreño, Ndendahe (Bedonkohe or Mogollon and Nednhi or Carrizaleño and Janero), Salinero, Plains (Kataka or Semat or "Kiowa-Apache") and Western Apache (Aravaipa, Pinaleño, Coyotero, Tonto). AH Apache An AH Apache from the U.S. Army's st Aviation Regiment in Iraq Role Attack helicopter National origin United States Manufacturer Hughes Helicopters (–) McDonnell Douglas (–) Boeing Defense, Space & Security (–present) First flight 30 September Introduction April Status In service Primary users United States Army Israeli Air Force Egyptian. Als Apachen ([aˈpaʧə, aˈpaxə]), deutsch auch Apatschen, bezeichnet man sechs kulturell sowie sprachlich verwandte Stammesgruppen der südlichen. Alle Suchergebnisse für Appachen. Suche bearbeiten. Neue Suche. von Ergebnisse. AufzeichnungenKategorien. Jahrhundert: Alle Suchergebnisse für Appachen. Suche bearbeiten. Neue Suche. von 22 Ergebnisse. AufzeichnungenKategorien. Entdecken Sie Die Kommantschen auf dem Kriegspfad / Angriff und Sieg der Appachen von Winnetou und Old Shatterhand bei Amazon Music. Werbefrei.
Auch Remakes erfreuen sich Appachen der Moderne einer ungebremsten Appachen. - NavigationsmenüDa auch die ca. Home page of The Apache Software Foundation. The ASF develops, shepherds, and incubates hundreds of freely-available, enterprise-grade projects that serve as the backbone for some of the most visible and widely used applications in computing today. The Apache (/ ə ˈ p æ tʃ i /) are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Mimbreño, Ndendahe (Bedonkohe or Mogollon and Nednhi or Carrizaleño and Janero), Salinero, Plains (Kataka or Semat or "Kiowa-Apache") and Western Apache (Aravaipa, Pinaleño, Coyotero, Tonto). About Me. 我们是一群非常普通的人，没有什么牛逼的背景！ 成立的原因也很简单，因为很多牛逼的人没做好而已！.